Biografi H.M Soeharto( Presiden RI-2)

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2nd President of Indonesia
In office
12 March 1967 – 21 May 1998
Vice President     Hamengkubuwono IX
Adam Malik
Umar Wirahadikusumah
Try Sutrisno
Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie
Preceded by     Sukarno
Succeeded by     Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie
16th Secretary General of Non-Aligned Movement
In office
7 September 1992 – 20 October 1995
Preceded by     Dobrica Ćosić
Succeeded by     Ernesto Samper Pizano
4th Indonesian Armed Forces Commander
In office
Preceded by     Abdul Haris Nasution
Succeeded by     Maraden Panggabean
8th Indonesian Army Chief of Staff
In office
Preceded by     Pranoto Reksosamudra
Succeeded by     Maraden Panggabean
1st Armed Force and Strategic Reserve (KOSTRAD) Commander
In office
Preceded by     Position created
Succeeded by     Umar Wirahadikusumah
Born     8 June 1921(1921-06-08)
Kemusuk, Dutch East Indies
Died     27 January 2008 (aged 86)
Jakarta, Indonesia
Nationality     Indonesian
Political party     Golkar
Spouse(s)     Siti Hartinah (d. 1996)
Children     Siti Hardiyanti Hastuti
Sigit Harjojudanto
Bambang Trihatmodjo
Siti Hediyati Hariyadi
Hutomo Mandala Putra
Siti Hutami Endang Adiningsih
Profession     Military
Religion     Islam

About this sound Suharto (help·info) (8 June 1921 – 27 January 2008) was the second President of Indonesia, having held the office for 32 years from 1967 following Sukarno’s removal until his resignation in 1998.

Suharto was born in a small village near Yogyakarta, during the Dutch colonial era. His Javanese peasant parents divorced not long after his birth, and he was passed between foster parents for much of his childhood. During the Japanese occupation of Indonesia, Suharto served in Japanese-organised Indonesian security forces. Indonesia’s independence struggle saw him joining the newly formed Indonesian army. Suharto rose to the rank of Major General following Indonesian independence. An attempted coup on 30 September 1965 was countered by Suharto-led troops and was blamed on the Indonesian Communist Party. The army subsequently led an anti-communist purge, and Suharto wrested power from Indonesia’s founding president, Sukarno. He was appointed acting president in 1967 and President the following year. Support for Suharto’s presidency eroded following the 1997–98 Asian financial crisis. He was forced to resign from the presidency in May 1998 and he died in 2008.

The legacy of Suharto’s 32-year rule is debated both in Indonesia and abroad. Under his “New Order” administration, Suharto constructed a strong, centralised and military-dominated government. An ability to maintain stability over a sprawling and diverse Indonesia and an avowedly anti-Communist stance won him the economic and diplomatic support of the West during the Cold War. For most of his presidency, Indonesia experienced significant economic growth and industrialisation, dramatically improving health, education and living standards.Indonesia’s 24-year occupation of East Timor during Suharto’s presidency, resulted in at least 100,000 deaths. Other estimates of the number dead range between 150,000 and 300,000. By the 1990s, the New Order’s authoritarianism and widespread corruption were a source of discontent. In the years after his presidency, attempts to try him on charges of corruption and genocide failed because of his poor health.

* 1 Early life
* 2 Military career
o 2.1 World War II and Japanese occupation
o 2.2 Indonesian National Revolution
o 2.3 Post-Independence military career
* 3 Overthrow of Sukarno (1965)
o 3.1 Background
o 3.2 Abortive coup and anti-communist purge
o 3.3 Power struggle
* 4 The “New Order” (1967–1998)
o 4.1 Institutionalisation of the New Order
o 4.2 Economy
o 4.3 Foreign policy, Irian Jaya, East Timor and Aceh
o 4.4 Politics and dissent
o 4.5 Resignation
* 5 Post-presidency
o 5.1 Investigations of wealth
o 5.2 Related legal cases
o 5.3 Health crises
o 5.4 Death
* 6 See also
* 7 References
o 7.1 Notes
o 7.2 General
* 8 Further reading
* 9 External links

[edit] Early life

Suharto was born on 8 June 1921 during the Dutch East Indies era, in a plaited bamboo walled house in the hamlet of Kemusuk, a part of the larger village of Godean. The village is 15 kilometres (9 miles) west of Yogyakarta, the cultural heartland of the Javanese. Born to ethnic Javanese parents of peasant class, he was the only child of his father’s second marriage. His father, Kertosudiro had two children from his previous marriage, and was a village irrigation official. His mother Sukirah, a local woman, was distantly related to Sultan Hamengkubuwono V by his first concubine.
Official Portrait Suharto and First Lady Siti Hartinah

Five weeks after Suharto’s birth, his mother suffered a nervous breakdown and he was placed in the care of his paternal great-aunt, Kromodiryo. Kertosudiro and Sukirah divorced early in Suharto’s life and both later remarried. At the age of three, Suharto was returned to his mother who had remarried a local farmer whom Suharto helped in the rice paddies. In 1929, Suharto’s father took him to live with his sister who was married to an agricultural supervisor, Prawirowihardjo, in the town of Wurjantoro in a poor and low-yield farming area near Wonogiri. Over the following two years, he was taken back to his mother in Kemusuk by his stepfather and then back again to Wurjantoro by his father.

Prawirowiharjo took to raising the boy as his own, which provided Suharto a father-figure and a stable home in Wuryantoro, from where he received much of his primary education. Suharto boarded with a dukun (“guru”) of Javanese mystical arts and faith healing. The experience deeply affected him and later, as president, Suharto surrounded himself with powerful symbolic language. During this time, the Wonogiri area was one of the worst affected in Java from the collapse in the Dutch East Indies’ export revenue during the Great Depression. As unemployed workers returned from the towns to their villages, the subsistence economy grew and the landless struggled to buy food.

The absence of official documentation and certain aspects of Suharto’s early life that are inconsistent with that of a Javanese peasant (Suharto received, for example, an education fairly early on), has led to several rumours of Suharto being the illegitimate child of a well-off benefactor, which included being the child of a Yogyakarta aristocrat or a well-off Chinese Indonesian merchant. Suharto biographer Robert E. Elson believes that such rumours cannot be entirely ruled out, given that much of the information Suharto has given on his origins has been tinged with political meaning.

Like many Javanese, Suharto had only one name. In religious contexts, he was sometimes called “Haji” or “el-Haj Mohammed Suharto”, but that was not part of his formal name or generally used. The spelling “Suharto” reflects modern Indonesian spelling. At the time of his birth, the standard transcription was “Soeharto” and he preferred the original spelling. The English-language press generally uses the spelling ‘Suharto’, while the Indonesian government and media use ‘Soeharto’.

Suharto’s upbringing contrasts with that of leading Indonesian nationalists such as Sukarno in that he is believed to have had little interest in anti-colonialism, or political concerns beyond his immediate surroundings. Unlike Sukarno and his circle, Suharto didn’t learn to speak Dutch or other European languages in his youth. He did learn to speak Dutch after his induction into the Dutch military in 1940.
[edit] Military career
[edit] World War II and Japanese occupation
See also: Japanese occupation of Indonesia

After finishing middle school at the age of 18, Suharto took a clerical job at a bank in Wurjantaro but was forced to resign after a bicycle mishap tore his only working clothes. Following a spell of unemployment, he joined the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army (KNIL) in 1940, and studied in a Dutch-run military school in Gombong near Yogyakarta. With the Netherlands under German occupation and the Japanese pressing for access to Indonesian oil supplies, the Dutch had opened up the KNIL to large intakes of previously excluded Javanese. After graduation, Suharto was assigned to Battalion XIII at Rampal. His service there was unremarkable, although he contracted malaria which required hospitalisation while on guard duty, and then gained promotion to sergeant.

The March 1942 invasion of Imperial Japanese forces was initially welcomed by many Indonesians as a key step towards independence and Suharto was one of thousands of Indonesians who volunteered for Japanese organised security forces. He first joined the Japanese sponsored police force at the rank of keibuho (assistant inspector), where he claimed to have gained his first experience in the intelligence work so central to his presidency[citation needed] (“Criminal matters became a secondary problem,” Suharto remarked, “what was most important were matters of a political kind”).

Suharto shifted from police work toward the Japanese-sponsored militia, the Peta (Defenders of the Fatherland) in which Indonesians served as officers. In his training to serve at the rank of shodancho (platoon commander) he encountered a localized version of the Japanese bushido, or “way of the warrior”, used to indoctrinate troops. This training encouraged an anti-Dutch and pro-nationalist thought, although toward the aims of the Imperial Japanese militarists. The encounter with a nationalistic and militarist ideology is believed to have profoundly influenced Suharto’s own way of thinking. The Japanese turned ex-NCOs, including Suharto, into officers and gave them further military education, including lessons in the use of the samurai sword. Suharto’s biographer, O.G. Roeder, records in The Smiling General (1969) that Suharto was “well known for his tough, but not brutal, methods”.
[edit] Indonesian National Revolution
See also: Indonesian National Revolution

Two days after the Japanese surrender in the Pacific, independence leaders Sukarno and Hatta declared Indonesian independence, and were appointed President and Vice-President respectively of the new Republic. Suharto disbanded his regiment in accordance with orders from the Japanese command and returned to Yogyakarta. As republican groups rose to assert Indonesian independence, Suharto joined a new unit of the newly formed Indonesian army. On the basis of his PETA experience, he was appointed deputy commander, and subsequently a battalion commander when the republican forces were formally organised in October 1945. Suharto was involved in fighting against Allied troops around Magelang and Semarang, and was subsequently appointed head of a brigade as lieutenant-colonel, having earned respect as a field commander. In the early years of the War, he organised local armed forces into Battalion X of Regiment I; Suharto was promoted to the rank of Major and became Battalion X’s leader.

The arrival of the Allies, under a mandate to return the situation to the status quo ante bellum, quickly led to clashes between Indonesian republicans and Allied forces, namely returning Dutch and assisting British forces. Suharto led his Division X troops to halt an advance by the Dutch T (“Tiger”) Brigade on 17 May 1946. It earned him the respect of his superior, Lieutenant Colonel Sunarto Kusumodirjo, who invited him to draft the working guidelines for the Battle Leadership Headquarters (MPP), a body created to organise and unify the command structure of the Indonesian Nationalist forces. The military forces of the still infant Republic of Indonesia were constantly restructuring. By August 1946, Suharto was head of the 22nd Regiment of Division III (the “Diponegoro Division”) stationed in Yogyakarta. In late 1946, the Diponegoro Division assumed responsibility for defence of the west and southwest of Yogyakarta from Dutch forces. Conditions at the time are reported in Dutch sources as miserable; Suharto himself is reported as assisting smuggling syndicates in the transport of opium through the territory he controlled, to make income.
Lieutenant Colonel Suharto in 1947.

In December 1948, the Dutch launched “Operation Crow”, which decimated much of the Indonesian fighting forces, and resulted in the capture of Sukarno and Hatta.For his part, Suharto took severe casualties in a humiliating defeat for Republican forces as the Dutch invaded the area of Yogyakarta. In dawn raids on 1 March 1949, Suharto’s forces and local militia re-captured the city, holding it until noon. Suharto’s later accounts had him as the lone plotter, although other sources say Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX of Yogyakarta, and the Panglima of the Third Division ordered the attack. However, General Nasution said that Suharto took great care in preparing the “General Offensive” (Indonesian Serangan Umum). Civilians sympathetic to the Republican cause within the city had been galvanised by the show of force which proved that the Dutch had failed to win the guerrilla war. Internationally, the United Nations Security Council pressured the Dutch to cease the military offensive and to re-commence negotiations. Suharto reportedly took an active interest in the peace agreements, but as for many Republican military men, they were much to his dissatisfaction.

During the Revolution, Suharto married Siti Hartinah (known as Madam Tien), the daughter of a minor noble in the Mangkunegaran royal house of Solo. The arranged marriage was enduring and supportive, lasting until Tien’s death in 1996. The couple had six children: Siti Hardiyanti Rukmana (Tutut, born 1949), Sigit Harjojudanto (born 1951), Bambang Trihatmodjo (born 1953), Siti Hediati (Titiek, born 1959), Hutomo Mandala Putra (Tommy, born 1962), and Siti Hutami Endang Adiningsih (Mamiek, born 1964). Within the Javanese upper class, it was considered acceptable if the wife pursued genteel commerce to supplement the family budget, allowing her husband to keep his dignity in his official role. The commercial dealings of Tien, her children and grandchildren became extensive and ultimately undermined Suharto’s presidency.
[edit] Post-Independence military career
Suharto with his wife and six children in 1967.

In the years following Indonesian independence, Suharto served in the Indonesian National Army, primarily in Java. In 1950, Colonel Suharto led the Garuda Brigade in suppressing a rebellion of largely Ambonese colonial-trained supporters of the Dutch-established State of East Indonesia and its federal entity the United States of Indonesia. During his year in Makassar, Suharto became acquainted with his neighbours the Habibie family, whose eldest son BJ Habibie would later became Suharto’s vice-president and went on to succeed him as President. In 1951, Suharto led his troops in a blocking campaign against the Islamic-inspired rebellion of Battalion 426 in Central Java before it was broken by the ‘Banteng (Wild Buffalo) Raiders’ led by Ahmad Yani.

Between 1954 and 1959, Brigadier General Suharto served in the important position of commander of Diponegoro Division, responsible for Central Java and Yogyakarta provinces. His relationship with prominent businessmen Liem Sioe Liong and Bob Hasan, which extend throughout his presidency, began in Central Java where he was involved in series of “profit generating” enterprises conducted primarily to keep the poorly funded military unit functioning. Army anti-corruption investigations implicated Suharto in a 1959 smuggling scandal. Relieved of his position, he was transferred to the army’s Staff and Command School (Seskoad) in the city of Bandung. While in Bandung, he was promoted to brigadier-general, and in late 1960, promoted to chief of army intelligence. In 1961, he was given an additional command, as head of the army’s new Strategic Reserve (later KOSTRAD), a ready-reaction air-mobile force.

In January 1962, Suharto was promoted to the rank of major General and appointed to lead Operation Mandala, a joint army-navy-air force command. This formed the military side of the campaign to win western New Guinea, from the Dutch who were preparing it for its own independence, separate from Indonesia. In 1965, Suharto was assigned operational command of Sukarno’s Konfrontasi, against the newly formed Malaysia. Fearful that Konfrontasi would leave Java thinly covered by the army, and hand control to the 2-million strong Indonesian Communist Party (PKI), he authorised a Kostrad intelligence officer, Ali Murtopo, to open contacts with the British and Malaysians.
[edit] Overthrow of Sukarno (1965)
Main article: Transition to the New Order
[edit] Background
See also: Guided Democracy in Indonesia

From the late 1950s, political conflict grew and the economy deteriorated. By the mid-1960s, annual inflation ran between 500–1,000%, export revenues were shrinking, infrastructure crumbling, and severe poverty and hunger were widespread. President Sukarno led his country in a military confrontation with Malaysia while stepping up revolutionary and anti-western rhetoric. Sukarno’s position came to depend on balancing the increasingly hostile forces of the army and Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI). By 1965 at the height of the Cold War, the PKI penetrated all levels of government. With the support of Sukarno, the party gained increasing influence at the expense of the army, thus ensuring the army’s enmity. By late 1965, the army was divided between a left-wing faction allied with the PKI, and a right-wing faction that was being courted by the United States.
[edit] Abortive coup and anti-communist purge
Main articles: 30 September Movement and Indonesian killings of 1965–66
As Major General, Suharto (at right, foreground) attends funeral for assassinated generals October 5, 1965.

On the night of 30 September 1965 six senior army generals were kidnapped and executed in Jakarta by a battalion of soldiers from the Presidential Guard. Backed by elements of the armed forces, the insurgents occupied Merdeka Square including the areas in front of the Presidential Palace, the national radio station, and telecommunications centre. At 7:10 a.m. Lt. Col. Untung Syamsuri announced on radio that the “30 September Movement” had forestalled a coup by “power-mad generals”, and that it was “an internal army affair”. Apart from Armed Forces Chief of Staff, General Abdul Haris Nasution—who was targeted but escaped assassination by climbing over his garden wall when soldiers arrived to arrest him—Suharto was the most senior general not removed by the 30 September group. Suharto had been in hospital that evening with his three-year old son Tommy who had a scalding injury. It was here that he spoke to Colonel Abdul Latief, the only key person in the ensuing events with whom he spoke that evening.

Upon being told of the shootings and disappearances, Suharto went to Kostrad headquarters just before dawn from where he could see soldiers occupying Merdeka Square. He led Kostrad in seizing control of the centre of Jakarta, capturing key strategic sites. Suharto announced over the radio at 9:00 p.m. that six generals had been kidnapped by “counter-revolutionaries”. He said he was in control of the army, and that he would crush the 30 September Movement and safeguard Sukarno. Suharto issued an ultimatum to Halim Air Force Base, where the G30S had based themselves and where Sukarno (the reasons for his presence are unclear and were subject of claim and counter-claim), General Omar Dhani and Aidit had gathered. The coup leaders fled Jakarta while G30S-sympathetic battalions in Central Java quickly came under Suharto control.

The poorly organised and coordinated coup thus failed, and by 2 October, Suharto’s faction was firmly in control of the army. Sukarno’s obedience to Suharto’s 1 October ultimatum to leave Halim changed all power relationships. Sukarno’s fragile balance of power between the military, political Islam, communists, and nationalists that underlay his “Guided Democracy” was collapsing. Complicated and partisan theories continue to this day over the identity of the attempted coup’s organisers and their aims. The army’s (and subsequently the “New Order’s”) official version was that the PKI was solely responsible. Other theories include Suharto being behind the events; that the army and Suharto was merely taking advantage of a poorly executed coup; and that Sukarno was behind the events (see 30 September Movement).

A military propaganda campaign convinced both Indonesian and international audiences that it was a Communist coup, and that the murders were cowardly atrocities against Indonesian heroes. The army led a campaign to purge Indonesian society, government and armed forces of the communist party and leftist organisations. The purge quickly spread from Jakarta to the rest of the country. (see: Indonesian killings of 1965–1966) In some areas the army organised civilian and religious groups and local militias, in other areas communal vigilante action preceded the army. The most widely accepted estimates are that at least half a million were killed. As many as 1.5 million were imprisoned at one stage or another. As a result of the purge, one of Sukarno’s three pillars of support, the Indonesian Communist Party, was effectively eliminated by the other two, the military and political Islam.
[edit] Power struggle
See also: Supersemar

On 2 October, Suharto accepted Sukarno’s order to take control of the army on Suharto’s condition that he personally have authority to restore order and security. The 1 November formation of Kopkamtib (Komando Operasi Pemulihan Keamanan dan Ketertiban, or Operational Command for the Restoration of Security and Order), formalised this authority. By January 1966 the PKI, President Sukarno’s strongest pillar of support, had been effectively eliminated, the army now saw its opportunity to occupy the apex of Indonesian power. Sukarno was still the Supreme Commander by virtue of the constitution, thus Suharto was careful not to be seen to be seizing power in his own coup. For eighteen months following the quashing of the 30 September Movement, there was a complicated process of political manoeuvers against Sukarno, including student agitation, stacking of parliament, media propaganda and military threats.

On 1 February 1966, Sukarno promoted Suharto to the rank of Lieutenant General. The same month, Gen. Nasution had been forced out of his position of Defence Minister, and the power contest had been reduced to Suharto and Sukarno. The Supersemar decree of 11 March 1966 transferred much of Sukarno’s power over the parliament and army to Suharto, ostensibly allowing Suharto to do whatever was needed to restore order. On 12 March 1967, Sukarno was stripped of his remaining power by Indonesia’s provisional Parliament, and Suharto was named Acting President. Sukarno was placed under house arrest; little more was heard from him, and he died in June 1970. On 27 March 1968, the Provisional Peoples Representative Assembly formally elected Suharto for the first of his five-year terms as President.
[edit] The “New Order” (1967–1998)
See also: New Order (Indonesia)
[edit] Institutionalisation of the New Order
See also: Acting Presidency of Suharto
Suharto is appointed President of Indonesia at a ceremony, March 1968.

At first, many saw Suharto as a comparatively obscure officer who had been thrust to prominence by the events of late 1965 and assumed he would not remain in power long. However, his formidable political skill quickly became apparent. In contrast to the communal and political conflicts, economic collapse and social breakdown of the late-1950s and mid-1960s, Suharto’s “New Order” —so-termed to distinguish it from Sukarno’s “old order”—was committed to achieving political order, economic development, and the removal of mass participation in the political process. In place of Sukarno’s revolutionary rhetoric, Suharto showed a pragmatic use of power, and in contrast to the liberal parliamentary democracy of the 1950s, Suharto headed an authoritarian, military-dominated government. The “New Order” featured a weak civil society, the bureaucratisation and corporatisation of political and societal organisations, and selective but effective repression of opponents.

To maintain domestic order, Suharto greatly expanded the funding and powers of the Indonesian state apparatus. He established two intelligence agencies—the Operational Command for the Restoration of Security and Order (Kopkamtib) and the State Intelligence Coordination Agency (BAKIN)—to deal with threats to the regime. The Bureau of Logistics (BULOG) was established to distribute rice and other staple commodities granted by USAID. These new government bodies were put under the military regional command structure, that under Suharto was given a “dual function” as both a defence force and as civilian administrators. The New Order rolled Indonesian political parties into two — nationalists and Christian parties became the Indonesian Democratic Party (PDI), and Muslim parties into the People’s Development Party (PPP). The New Order built an army-sponsored co-operative movement, Golkar, a coalition of society’s “functional groups”, into an official party of secular development. Golkar, PDI, and PPP were the only parties allowed to contend elections with the latter two prevented from forming an effective opposition. 100 seats in the electoral college for electing the President were set aside for military representatives. Suharto was elected unopposed as president in 1973, 1978, 1983, 1988, 1993, and 1998.

As part of 1967s ‘Basic Policy for the Solution of the Chinese Problem’ and other measures, all but one Chinese-language papers were closed, all Chinese religious expressions had to be confined to their homes, Chinese-language schools were phased out, Chinese script in public places was banned, and Chinese were encouraged to take on Indonesian-sounding names. Much of this legislation was revoked following Suharto’s fall from power in 1998.
[edit] Economy

From 1965 to 68, hyper-inflation was brought under control. A number of measures were implemented to encourage foreign investment once again in Indonesia. These included the privatisation of its natural resources to promote investment by industrialised nations, labour laws favourable to multinational corporations, and soliciting funds for development from institutions including the World Bank, Western banks, and friendly governments. Suharto brought a shift in policy from Sukarno and allowed USAID and other relief agencies to resume operations within the country. He opened Indonesia’s economy by divesting state owned companies, and Western nations in particular were encouraged to invest and take control of many of the mining and construction interests there.
Suharto on a visit to West Germany in 1970.

Within a few years, the Indonesian economy had been revived from its near collapsed state of the mid-1960s. It recorded strong annual economic growth for the three decades of Suharto’s presidency, although much of these gains would be lost in the 1997/98 Asian financial crisis. Indonesia achieved self-sufficiency in rice production by the mid-1980s, a basic education to almost all citizens, and a successful family planning program. Subsidies on basics such as food and fuel to maintain grass-roots support were costly to government budgets.

Although the Suharto regime claimed to have had success in reducing poverty, four in five Indonesians still lived below or only slightly above the level of $1 a day near the end of his rule. Suharto’s former government ministers flatly stated the alleged lowering of poverty rates was false. The Suharto regime’s definition of poverty was also inflated: it was a monetary sum, a rupiah base sufficient to enable the poor to get the internationally accepted norm of 2,100 calories a day. The cash amount had been less than the globally accepted poverty line of $1 a day. Until the 1998 crisis, it was only about half that in Indonesia’s cities, and less in the countryside.

Influence and business opportunity became increasingly concentrated within Suharto’s family, relatives, favoured generals and a number of ethnic Chinese businessmen that he had known since his time in Semarang in particular Liem Siu Liong and Bob Hasan. Much of the funds flowed to foundations (yayasan) controlled by the Suharto family. By the late ’80s, the extent of the first family’s business activities concerned even long-time military associates, such as General Benny Murdani. By the pre-financial crisis peak of the mid-1990s, the family’s annual revenue was estimated in the billions of US dollars. Much of it was recycled back into pay-offs, patronage, military subsidies, and campaign funding.
[edit] Foreign policy, Irian Jaya, East Timor and Aceh
Suharto attends 1970 meeting of the Non-Aligned Movement in Lusaka.

Upon assuming power, Suharto dispatched his foreign minister Adam Malik to mend strained relations with the United States, the United Nations, and end the Sukarno-instigated Konfrontasi with Malaysia. Previously increasingly close relations with China were cut (diplomatic ties were restored in 1990). Suharto played an important role in the establishment of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 1967 and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) in the early 1990s. Officially, the “New Order” followed a foreign policy of neutrality.

In 1969, Suharto’s government reached an agreement with the United States and United Nations, to hold a referendum on self-determination for western New Guinea. The 1969 “Act of Free Choice” was open to 1022 “chiefs” and the unanimous decision for integration with Indonesia lead to doubts of its validity. In 1975, Indonesia invaded Portuguese Timor and the following year declared East Timor the 27th province of Indonesia, a status never recognised by the United Nations. Following Suharto’s 1998 resignation from the Presidency, the Indonesian government ceded control of East Timor in 1999 following a referendum vote for independence. An estimated minimum of 102,800 conflict-related deaths occurred in East Timor during the period 1974–1999, namely, approximately 18,600 killings and 84,200 ‘excess’ deaths from hunger and illness. In 1976, the Free Aceh Movement, or GAM, who demanded independence for Aceh from Indonesia. Suharto authorised troops to put down the rebellion, forcing several of its leaders into exile in Sweden. Prolonged fighting between GAM and the Indonesian military and police led Suharto to declare martial law in the province, by naming Aceh a “military operational area” in 1990.[citation needed]
[edit] Politics and dissent
Suharto with U.S. Secretary of Defense William Cohen, 14 January 1998.

In 1970, corruption prompted student protests and an investigation by a government commission. Suharto responded by banning student protests, forcing the activists underground. Only token prosecution of the cases recommended by the commission was pursued. On 5 May 1980 a group of prominent military men, politicians, academics and students calling themselves the “Petition of Fifty” questioned Suharto’s use of the national ideology Pancasila. The Indonesian media suppressed the news and the government placed restrictions on the signatories. After the group’s 1984 accusation that Suharto was creating a one-party state, some of its leaders were jailed.[citation needed] In the same decade, it is believed by many scholars that the Indonesian military split between a nationalist “red and white faction” and an Islamist “green faction.” As the 1980s closed, Suharto is said to have been forced to shift his alliances from the former to the latter, leading to the rise of Jusuf Habibie in the 1990s.

Following the end of the Cold War, Western concern over communism waned, and Suharto’s human rights record came under greater international scrutiny. The 1991 killing of over 200 East Timorese civilians in Dili, East Timor, resulted in the Congress of the United States passing limitations on IMET assistance to the Indonesian military.Noam Chomsky has referred to the 1975 Indonesian invasion and occupation of East Timor as the worst instance of genocide relative to population since the Holocaust. In 1993, under President Bill Clinton, the U.S. delegation to the UN Human Rights Commission helped pass a resolution expressing deep concern over Indonesian human rights violations in East Timor.

Despite concerns over Indonesian human rights, the Clinton administration was seen as supportive of Suharto—Indonesia was seen to serve US interests. Suharto deregulated Indonesia’s economy and opened Indonesia to foreign investors.

By 1996, Megawati Sukarnoputri, the daughter of Sukarno, and chair of the Indonesian Democratic Party was increasingly critical of Suharto’s “New Order”. In response, Suharto backed a co-opted faction led by Deputy Speaker of Parliament Suryadi, which removed Megawati from the chair. A government crackdown on demonstrating Megawati supporters result in a number of deaths, rioting and the arrest of two-hundred. Those arrested were tried under the anti-Subversion and hate-spreading laws. It marked the beginning of a renewed crackdown by the New Order government against supporters of democracy, now called the “Reformasi” or Reformation.
[edit] Resignation
Main article: Fall of Suharto
Suharto reads his address of resignation at Merdeka Palace on 21 May 1998. Suharto’s successor, B. J. Habibie, is to his right.
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Suharto’s Resignation Speech

The Asian Financial Crisis had dire consequences for the Indonesian economy and society, and Suharto’s regime. The Indonesian currency collapsed in value, foreign investment dried up, and mass layoffs of urban workers and price rises created tension across the country. Suharto was re-elected for another five-year term in March 1998, stacking parliament and cabinet with his own family and business associates in the process. Increasingly, prominent political figures spoke out against Suharto’s presidency, and university students organised nation-wide demonstrations.

The shooting of four student demonstrators in Jakarta in May 1998 triggered rioting across the city that destroyed thousands of buildings and killed over 1,000 people. Following public outrage at the events, a student occupation of the parliament building, streets protest across the country, and the desertion of key political allies, on 21 May 1998 Suharto announced his resignation from the presidency. His recently appointed Vice President Habibie assumed the presidency in accordance with the constitution.
[edit] Post-presidency

After his resignation, Suharto retired to a family compound in Central Jakarta, making few public appearances. Efforts to prosecute Suharto have mostly centred around alleged mismanagement of funds, and their force has been blunted due to health concerns. Suharto was never prosecuted.
[edit] Investigations of wealth

In May 1999, Time Asia estimated Suharto’s family fortune at US$15 billion in cash, shares, corporate assets, real estate, jewelry and fine art. Of this, US$9 billion is reported to have been deposited in an Austrian bank. The family is said to control about 36,000 km² of real estate in Indonesia, including 100,000 m² of prime office space in Jakarta and nearly 40% of the land in East Timor. Suharto was placed highest on Transparency International’s list of corrupt leaders with an alleged misappropriation of between US $15–35 billion during his 32-year presidency.

On 29 May 2000, Suharto was placed under house arrest when Indonesian authorities began to investigate the corruption during his regime. In July 2000, it was announced that he was to be accused of embezzling US$571 million of government donations to one of a number of foundations under his control and then using the money to finance family investments. But in September court-appointed doctors announced that he could not stand trial because of his declining health. State prosecutors tried again in 2002 but then doctors cited an unspecified brain disease. On 26 March 2008, a civil court judge acquitted Suharto of corruption but ordered his charitable foundation, Supersemar, to pay US$110 m (£55 m).
[edit] Related legal cases

In 2002, Suharto’s son Hutomo Mandala Putra, more widely known as Tommy, was sentenced to 15 years jail. He had been convicted of ordering the killing of a judge who had sentenced him to 18 months jail for corruption and illegal weapons possession. In 2006, he was freed on “conditional release.” following reductions in his sentence.

In 2003, Suharto’s half-brother Probosutedjo was tried and convicted for corruption and the loss of $10 million from the Indonesian state. He was sentenced to four years in jail. He later won a reduction of his sentence to two years, initiating a probe by the Indonesian Corruption Eradication Commission into the alleged scandal of the “judicial mafia” which uncovered offers of $600,000 to various judges. Probosutedjo confessed to the scheme in October 2005, leading to the arrest of his lawyers. His full four year term was reinstated. After a brief standoff at a hospital, in which he was reportedly protected by a group of police officers, he was arrested on 30 November 2005.

On 9 July 2007, Indonesian prosecutors filed a civil lawsuit against former President Suharto, to recover state funds ($440 m or £219 m, which allegedly disappeared from a scholarship fund, and a further $1.1 billion in damages).

On 4 September 2007, mediation at the Attorney General’s Office (AGO) between prosecutors and lawyers for Suharto over the Supersemar foundation civil lawsuit succeeded and thus the trial will have to commence.

On 10 September 2007, Indonesia’s Supreme Court awarded Suharto damages against Time Asia magazine, ordering it to pay him one trillion rupiah ($128.59 million). The High Court reversed the judgment of an appellate court and Central Jakarta district court (made in 2000 and 2001). Suharto had sued the U.S.-based Time magazine seeking more than $US 27 billion in damages for libel over a 1999 article which reported that he transferred stolen money abroad.
[edit] Health crises

After resigning from the presidency, Suharto was hospitalised repeatedly for stroke, heart, and intestinal problems. His declining health negatively affected the many attempts to prosecute Suharto on charges of corruption and human rights violations, as his lawyers successfully claimed that his condition rendered him unfit for trial. In 2006, Attorney General Abdurrahman announced that a team of twenty doctors would be asked to evaluate Suharto’s health and fitness for trial. One physician, Brigadier General Dr Marjo Subiandono, stated his doubts about by noting that “[Suharto] has two permanent cerebral defects.” In a later Financial Times report, Attorney General Abdurrahman discussed the re-examination, and called it part of a “last opportunity” to prosecute Suharto criminally. Attorney General Abdurrahman left open the possibility of filing suit against the Suharto estate.”
[edit] Death

On 4 January 2008, Suharto was taken to the Pertamina hospital, Jakarta with complications arising from a weak heart, swelling of limbs and stomach, and partial renal failure. His health fluctuated for several weeks but progressively worsened with anaemia and low blood pressure due to heart and kidney complications, internal bleeding, fluid on his lungs, and blood in his feces and urine which caused a haemoglobin drop. On 23 January, Suharto’s health worsened further, as a sepsis infection spread through his body. His family consented to the removal of life support machines, and he died on 27 January at 1:10 p.m.

Suharto’s body was taken from Jakarta to the Giri Bangun mausoleum complex near the Central Java city of Solo. He was buried alongside his late wife in a state military funeral with full honours, with the Kopassus elite forces and KOSTRAD commandos as the honour guard and pallbearers and Commander of Group II Kopassus Surakarta Lt.Colonel Asep Subarkah. In attendance were the incumbent president, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono as “Ceremony Inspector”, and vice-president, government ministers, and armed forces chiefs of staff. Tens of thousands of people lined the streets to see the convoy. Condolences were offered by many regional heads of state, although certain regional leaders such as Helen Clark, the Prime Minister of New Zealand, boycotted the funeral, whereas Indonesia’s President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono declared a week of official mourning.
[edit] See also
Flag of Indonesia.svg     Indonesia portal

* History of Indonesia
* Timeline of Indonesian history

[edit] References
[edit] Notes

1. ^ Berger, Marilyn (2008-01-28). “Suharto Dies at 86; Indonesian Dictator Brought Order and Bloodshed”. New York Times. Retrieved 2008-01-30.
2. ^ Schwarz (1994), p. 175
3. ^ Friend (2003), pages 107–109; Chris Hilton (writer and director). (2001). Shadowplay. [Television documentary]. Vagabond Films and Hilton Cordell Productions. ; Ricklefs (1991), pages 280–283, 284, 287–290
4. ^ Miguel, Edward; Paul Gertler, David I. Levine (January 2005). “Does Social Capital Promote Industrialization? Evidence from a Rapid Industrializer”. Econometrics Softare Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley.
5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o McDonald, Hamish (28 January 2008). “No End to Ambition”. Sydney Morning Herald.
6. ^ Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor Benetech Human Rights Data Analysis Group (February 9, 2006). “The Profile of Human Rights Violations in Timor-Leste, 1974–1999”. A Report to the Commission on Reception, Truth and Reconciliation of Timor-Leste. Human Rights Data Analysis Group (HRDAG).
7. ^
8. ^ estimates of government funds misappropriated by the Suharto family range from US$1.5 billion and US$35 billion.(Ignatius, Adi (2007-09-11). “Mulls Indonesia Court Ruling”. TIME.,8599,1660967,00.html?iid=sphere-inline-sidebar. Retrieved 2009-08-09. ); Haskin, Colin, “Suharto dead at 86”, Globe and Mail, January 27, 2008
9. ^ a b “Suharto tops corruption rankings”. BBC News. March 25, 2004. Retrieved 2006-02-04.
10. ^ Tempo (Jakarta), 11 November 1974.
11. ^ a b McDonald (1980), p. 10.
12. ^ a b McDonald (1980), p. 11.
13. ^ a b c McDonald (1980), page 9
14. ^ Haskin, Colin, “Suharto dead at 86”, Globe and Mail, January 27, 2008
15. ^ Romano, Angela Rose (2003). Politics and the press in Indonesia. p. ix. ISBN 0700717455.
16. ^ Elson, Robert E. (2001). Suharto: A Political Biography. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–6. ISBN 0521773261.
17. ^ McDonald (1980), pages 12–13
18. ^ a b McDonald (1980), pages 13
19. ^ Elson, Robert E. (2001). Suharto: A Political Biography. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. p. 8. ISBN 0521773261.
20. ^ Oudang, R. (1954). Perkembangan kepolisian di Indonesia. Jakarta: Mahabarata. p. 36.
21. ^ Elson, R.E. (2001). Suharto: A Political Biography. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. p. 9. ISBN 0521773261.
22. ^ a b McDonald (1980), p. 14.
23. ^ McDonald (1980), p. 16.
24. ^ Elson, R.E. (2001). Suharto: A Political Biography. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. pp. 14–15. ISBN 0521773261.
25. ^ Elson, R.E. (2001). Suharto: A Political Biography. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. pp. 15–17. ISBN 0521773261.
26. ^ a b Elson, R.E. (2001). Suharto: A Political Biography. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. pp. 20–25, 28–29. ISBN 0521773261.
27. ^ Reid 1974
28. ^ Elson, R.E. (2001). Suharto: A Political Biography. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. pp. 29–38, 42–44. ISBN 0521773261.
29. ^ McDonald, Hamish (1980). Suharto’s Indonesia. Fontana Books. pp. 24–25. ISBN 0-00-635721-0.
30. ^ McDonald, Hamish (1980). Suharto’s Indonesia. Fontana Books. p. 25. ISBN 0-00-635721-0.
31. ^ McDonald, Hamish (1980). Suharto’s Indonesia. Fontana Books. pp. 30–31. ISBN 0-00-635721-0.
32. ^ McDonald, Hamish (1980). Suharto’s Indonesia. Fontana Books. pp. 31–32. ISBN 0-00-635721-0.
33. ^ Schwarz (1994), pages 52–57
34. ^ a b c Sheridan, Greg (28 January 2008). “Farewell to Jakarta’s Man of Steel”. The Australian. Retrieved 2010-04-14.
35. ^ Ricklefs (1991), page 282
36. ^ Ricklefs (1991), pages 272–80
37. ^ Ricklefs (1991), page 281
38. ^ Vickers (2005), page 156
39. ^ Friend (2003), page 104
40. ^ Ricklefs (1991), p. 282.
41. ^ Ricklefs (1991), page 281–282
42. ^ a b Friend (2003), page 105
43. ^ a b Ricklefs (1991), pages 281–282
44. ^ a b Vickers (2005), page 157
45. ^ Ricklefs (1991), page 287
46. ^ Vickers (2005), pages 158–159
47. ^ Ricklefs (1991), p. 288
48. ^ Friend (2003), p. 113
49. ^ Vickers (2005), p. 159
50. ^ Robert Cribb (2002). “Unresolved Problems in the Indonesian Killings of 1965–1966”. Asian Survey 42 (4): 550–563. doi:10.1525/as.2002.42.4.550.
51. ^ Vickers (2005), pages 159–60
52. ^ Ricklefs (1991), p. 287.
53. ^ Schwartz (1994), pages 2 & 22
54. ^ a b Vickers (2005), page 160
55. ^ “Sukarno Removes His Defence Chief”. New York Times. 22 February 1965.
56. ^ McDonald (1980), p. 60.
57. ^ a b Schwartz (1994), page 2
58. ^ Ricklefs (1991), p. 295.
59. ^ Aspinal (1999), p.ii
60. ^ Schwartz (1994), p. 3.; Aspinall (1999), pp. i & ii.
61. ^ Schwartz (1994), page 106
62. ^; Inside Indonesia
63. ^ “Indonesia Economic”. Commanding Heights. PBS/WBGH. Retrieved 23 May 2005.
64. ^ Speak No Evil: Why the World Bank Failed to Anticipate Indonesia’s Deep Crisis by Marcus W. Brauchli. Wall Street Journal. (Eastern edition). New York, N.Y.: July 14, 1998. pg. A.1
65. ^ Koerner, Brendan (March 26, 2004). “How Did Suharto Steal $35 Billion? Cronyism 101”. Slate. Retrieved 2006-02-04.
66. ^ Simpson, Brad (July 9, 2004). “Indonesia’s 1969 Takeover of West Papua Not by “Free Choice””. National Security Archive.
67. ^ Benetech Human Rights Data Analysis Group (February 9, 2006). “The Profile of Human Rights Violations in Timor-Leste, 1974–1999”. A Report to the Commission on Reception, Truth and Reconciliation of Timor-Leste. Human Rights Data Analysis Group (HRDAG).
68. ^ Miller, Michelle Ann. (2008). Rebellion and Reform in Indonesia. Jakarta’s Security and Autonomy Policies in Aceh, London, Routledge, pp.5–6. ISBN 978-0-415-45467-4
69. ^ “H.AMDT.647 (A003): An amendment to prohibit any funds appropriated in the bill to be used for military education and training assistance to Indonesia”. THOMAS (Library of Congress). Retrieved 2006-02-04.
70. ^ “Indonesia at the Crossroads: U.S. Weapons Sales and Military Training”. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
71. ^ “United Nations High Commission on Human Rights resolution 1993/97: Situation in East Timor”. United Nations. Retrieved 2006-02-04.
72. ^ a b Sanger, David (1995-10- 31). “Real Politics: Why Suharto Is In and Castro Is Out”. New York Times. Retrieved 2009-01-13.
73. ^ “The Great Allan Nairn on Indonesia — Indonesia’s anti-terror police”. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
74. ^ a b Vickers (2005), pp. 203–207.
75. ^ E. Aspinall, H. Feith, and G. Van Klinken (eds) The Last Days of President Suharto, Monash Asia Institute, pp.iv-vii.
76. ^ “Suharto charity told to pay $110 m”. 2008-03-27. Retrieved 2010-01-06.
77. ^ “Asia-Pacific | Tommy Suharto freed from prison”. BBC News. 2006-10-30. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
78. ^ “Civil suit filed against Suharto”. BBC News. July 9, 2007.
79. ^ “, Mediation fails, Soeharto civil trial continues”.
80. ^ From correspondents in Jakarta (2007-09-10). “, Suharto wins $128 m in damages”.,21985,22396808-5005961,00.html. Retrieved 2009-08-09. [dead link]
81. ^ “Former Indonesian dictator unfit to stand trial — doctor”. The Sydney Morning Herald. Associated Press. April 23, 2006.–doctor/2006/04/22/1145344319571.html.
82. ^ Donnan, Shawn (April 28, 2006). “Jakarta makes final attempt to pursue Suharto charges”. Financial Times.
83. ^ “Indonesia’s ailing Suharto ‘getting worse’: doctors”. 2008-01-05. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
84. ^ “Suharto condition ‘deteriorating'”. BBC News. 2008-01-08. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
85. ^ Jakarta Post, Suharto’s health deteriorates, infection spreads, January 24 2008;
86. ^ “Indonesia ex-leader Suharto dies”. BBC News. 2008-01-27. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
87. ^ “Asia-Pacific — Suharto has multiple organ failure”. Al Jazeera English. 2008-01-14. Retrieved 2010-04-14.
88. ^ “— Presiden Tiba di Astana Giribangun”.,20080128-116371,id.html. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
89. ^ Tedjasukmana, Jason (2008-01-29). “Indonesia Bids Farewell to Suharto”. TIME.,8599,1707754,00.html. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
90. ^ “NZ won’t sign Suharto condolence book, January 29, 2008”. 2008-01-29.,21985,23127319-5005961,00.html. Retrieved 2009-08-09. [dead link]
91. ^ “Geoff Thompson, Suharto’s body arrives home, ABC News January 27, 2008”. 2008-01-27. Retrieved 2009-08-09.

[edit] General

* “Two former strongmen, Soeharto-Lee Kuan Yew meet again”. ANTARA. February 22, 2006. Retrieved 2006-02-22. [dead link]
* “Army in Jakarta Imposes a Ban on Communists”. New York Times. 19 October 1965.
* Aspinall, Ed (October–December 1996). “What happened before the riots?”. Inside Indonesia.
* “Attorney general doubts Soeharto can be prosecuted”. Jakarta Post. May 27, 2005.
* Blum, William (1995). Killing Hope: US Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II. Monroe, Me.: Common Courage Press. ISBN 1-56751-052-3.
* Camdessus Commends Indonesian Actions. Press Release. International Monetary Fund. (October 31, 1997)
* “CIA Stalling State Department Histories”. The National Security Archive. Retrieved May 23, 2005.
* Colmey, John (May 24, 1999). “The Family Firm”. TIME Asia.
* Elson, Robert E. (2001). Suharto: A Political Biography. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-77326-1.
* Friend, Theodore (2003). Indonesian Destinies. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01834-6.
* “H.AMDT.647 (A003): An amendment to prohibit any funds appropriated in the bill to be used for military education and training assistance to Indonesia”. THOMAS (Library of Congress). Retrieved 2006-02-04.
* “Indonesia: Arrests, torture and intimidation: The Government’s response to its critics”. Amnesty International. November 27, 1996. [dead link]
* “Indonesia Economic”. Commanding Heights. Retrieved May 23, 2005.
* “Jakarta Cabinet Faces Challenge”. New York Times. December 16, 1965.

* “Jakarta Leftist Out As Army Chief” New York Times October 15, 1965
* Koerner, Brendan (March 26, 2004). “How Did Suharto Steal $35 Billion? Cronyism 101”. Slate. Retrieved 2006-02-04.
* “Jakarta Cabinet Faces Challenge”. New York Times. December 16, 1965.
* Lashmar, Paul and Oliver, James (April 16, 2000). “MI6 Spread Lies to Put Killer In Power”. The Independent.
* Lashmar, Paul; Oliver, James (1999). Britain’s Secret Propaganda War. Sutton Pub Ltd. ISBN 0-7509-1668-0.
* “Public Expenditures, Prices and the Poor”. World Bank. 1993.
* Ricklefs, M.C. 1991. A History of Modern Indonesia since c.1300. 2nd Edition, Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-333-57690-X
* Simpson, Brad (July 9, 2004). “Indonesia’s 1969 Takeover of West Papua Not by “Free Choice””. National Security Archive.
* Schwarz, A. (1994). A Nation in Waiting: Indonesia in the 1990s. Westview Press. ISBN 1-86373-635-2.
* “Suharto tops corruption rankings”. BBC News. March 25, 2004. Retrieved 2006-02-04.
* “Sukarno Removes His Defense Chief” New York Times February 22, 1966
* “Tapol Troubles: When Will They End?”. Inside Indonesia. April–June 1999.
* Toer, Pramoedya Ananta (2000). The Mute’s Soliloquy: A Memoir. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-028904-6.
* “United Nations High Commission on Human Rights resolution 1993/97: Situation in East Timor”. United Nations. Retrieved 2006-02-04.

[edit] Further reading

* McDonald, H., Suharto’s Indonesia, Fontana Books, 1980, Blackburn, Australia, ISBN 0006357210
* McGlynn, John H. et al., Indonesia in the Soeharto years. Issue, incidents and images, Jakarta 2007, KITLV
* Schwarz, A. 1999, A Nation in Waiting: Indonesia’s Search for Stability, Westview Press; 2nd edition (October 1999), ISBN 0-8133-3650-3
* “Vengeance with a Smile”, Time Magazine, Friday, Jul. 15, 1966
* Retnowati Abdulgani-Knapp; Soeharto: The Life and Legacy of Indonesia’s Second President: An Authorised Biography’. Marshall Cavendish Editions; ISBN 9812613404, ISBN 978-9812613400

[edit] External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Suharto

*, Life in pictures: Indonesia’s Suharto BBC
* Financial Times obituary
* The Guardian obituary
* Obituary in The Times, January 28, 2008
* “Suharto, Inc.” May 1999 Time Magazine exposé on Suharto’s regime and family, published on the first anniversary of Suharto’s resignation
* Shadow Play — Website accompanying a 2002 PBS documentary on Indonesia, with emphasis on the Suharto-era and the transition from New Order to Reformation
* “Suharto to Iraq: Nothing has changed” – Article by British journalist and Suharto critic John Pilger on the fortieth anniversary of the Transition to the New Order in Zmag (originally published in the New Statesman).
* Tiger Tales: Indonesia — Website accompanying a 2002 BBC World Service radio documentary on Indonesia, focusing on early Suharto era. Features interviews with Indonesian generals and victims of the regime. Program is available in streaming RealAudio format.

Military offices
Preceded by
Pranoto Reksosamudra     Indonesian Army Chief of Staff
1965–1967     Succeeded by
Maraden Panggabean
Position abolished by Sukarno after October 17, 1952 incident
Title last held by
T B Simatupang
As Chief of Staff of the Battle Forces     Commander-in-Chief of the Indonesian Armed Forces
1969–1973     Succeeded by
Maraden Panggabean
Political offices
Preceded by
Sukarno     President of Indonesia
12 March 1967 – 21 May 1998     Succeeded by
Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie
Preceded by
Dobrica Ćosić     Secretary General of Non-Aligned Movement
1992–1995     Succeeded by
Ernesto Samper Pizano
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Dalam Bahasa Indonesia: Biografi H.M.Soeharto (Presiden RI-2)

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2 Presiden Indonesia
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Didahului oleh: Abdul Haris Nasution
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8 Kepala Staf Angkatan Darat Indonesia
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1 TNI dan Cadangan Strategis (Kostrad) Komandan
Di kantor
Didahului oleh Posisi diciptakan
Pengganti Umar Wirahadikusumah
Lahir 8 Juni 1921 (1921/6/8)
Kemusuk, Hindia Belanda Timur
Meninggal 27 Januari 2008 (umur 86)
Jakarta, Indonesia
Kebangsaan Indonesia
Politik Partai Golkar
Pasangan (s) Siti Hartinah (w. 1996)
Anak-anak Siti Hardiyanti Hastuti
Sigit Harjojudanto
Bambang Trihatmodjo
Siti Hediyati Hariyadi
Hutomo Mandala Putra
Siti Hutami Endang Adiningsih
Profesi Militer
Agama Islam
Tanda tangan

Tentang Suharto suara (bantuan · info) (8 Juni 1921-27 Januari 2008) adalah Presiden kedua Indonesia, setelah menjabat selama 32 tahun dari 1967 berikut penghapusan Sukarno sampai ia mengundurkan diri pada tahun 1998.

Soeharto lahir di sebuah desa kecil di dekat Yogyakarta, pada masa kolonial Belanda. orangtua Jawa-Nya petani bercerai tidak lama setelah kelahirannya, dan ia melewati antara orang tua asuh bagi sebagian besar masa kecilnya. Selama pendudukan Jepang di Indonesia, Soeharto bertugas di Jepang-terorganisir pasukan keamanan Indonesia. perjuangan kemerdekaan Indonesia melihatnya bergabung dengan tentara Indonesia yang baru dibentuk. Suharto naik pangkat Mayor Jenderal setelah kemerdekaan Indonesia. Upaya kudeta pada tanggal 30 September 1965 adalah balas oleh pasukan yang dipimpin Suharto dan menyalahkan pada Partai Komunis Indonesia. Tentara kemudian memimpin pembersihan anti-komunis, dan Soeharto merebut kekuasaan dari presiden pendiri Indonesia, Sukarno. Beliau diangkat penjabat presiden pada tahun 1967 dan Presiden tahun berikutnya. Dukungan untuk presiden Soeharto terkikis setelah krisis keuangan Asia 1997-1998. Dia terpaksa mengundurkan diri dari kursi kepresidenan pada bulan Mei 1998 dan ia meninggal pada tahun 2008.

Warisan pemerintahan Suharto 32 tahun diperdebatkan baik di Indonesia maupun luar negeri. Di bawah “pemerintahannya” Orde Baru, Soeharto membangun pemerintahan yang kuat terpusat dan militer yang didominasi. Kemampuan untuk menjaga stabilitas di Indonesia yang luas dan beragam dan sikap anti-Komunis terus terang memenangkan dukungan ekonomi dan diplomatik Barat selama Perang Dingin. Untuk sebagian besar dari kepresidenannya, Indonesia mengalami pertumbuhan ekonomi yang signifikan dan industrialisasi, secara dramatis meningkatkan pekerjaan kesehatan, pendidikan dan standards.Indonesia hidup ‘s 24 tahun Timor Timur pada masa kepresidenan Soeharto, mengakibatkan setidaknya 100.000 kematian. perkiraan lain jumlah kematian berkisar antara 150.000 dan 300.000. Pada tahun 1990-an, otoritarianisme Orde Baru dan korupsi yang tersebar luas adalah sumber ketidakpuasan. Pada tahun-tahun setelah kepresidenannya, upaya untuk mencoba dia dengan tuduhan korupsi dan genosida gagal karena kesehatannya yang buruk.

* 1 Awal kehidupan
* 2 Karir Militer
2,1 o Perang Dunia II dan pendudukan Jepang
o 2,2 Revolusi Nasional Indonesia
o 2,3 Pasca Kemerdekaan karir militer
* 3 Gulingkan Sukarno (1965)
o 3,1 Latar Belakang
o 3,2 kudeta gagal dan anti-komunis purge
3,3 o Power perjuangan
* 4 Orde “Baru” (1967-1998)
o 4,1 Institutionalisation Orde Baru
4,2 o Ekonomi
o 4,3 kebijakan asing, Irian Jaya, Timor Timur dan Aceh
o 4,4 Politik dan perbedaan pendapat
o 4,5 Pengunduran Diri
* 5 Post-presiden
o Pemeriksaan kekayaan 5,1
o 5,2 hukum kasus Terkait
o 5,3 krisis Kesehatan
o 5,4 Kematian
* 6 Lihat pula
* 7 Referensi
o 7,1 Catatan
7,2 o Umum
* 8 Bacaan lebih lanjut
* 9 Pranala luar

[Sunting] Kehidupan awal

Soeharto lahir pada 8 Juni 1921 selama era Hindia Belanda, di sebuah rumah berdinding bambu anyaman di dusun Kemusuk, sebuah bagian dari desa yang lebih besar dari Godean. Desa ini hanya 15 kilometer (9 mil) barat Yogyakarta, jantung budaya Jawa. Lahir untuk orang tua etnis Jawa kelas petani, ia adalah anak tunggal dari perkawinan kedua ayahnya. Ayahnya, Kertosudiro mempunyai dua anak dari pernikahan sebelumnya, dan pejabat irigasi desa. Ibunya Sukirah, seorang wanita setempat, jauh dengan Sultan Hamengkubuwono V oleh selir pertamanya.
Potret resmi Suharto dan Ibu Negara Siti Hartinah

Lima minggu setelah Soeharto lahir, ibunya mengalami gangguan mental dan ia ditempatkan dalam perawatan ayah besar-bibinya, Kromodiryo. Kertosudiro dan Sukirah bercerai awal dalam kehidupan Soeharto dan keduanya kemudian menikah lagi. Pada usia tiga tahun, Soeharto kembali ke ibunya yang telah menikah lagi seorang petani setempat yang membantu Soeharto di sawah. Pada tahun 1929, ayah Soeharto membawanya untuk tinggal bersama saudara perempuannya yang menikah dengan seorang supervisor pertanian, Prawirowihardjo, di kota Wurjantoro dalam miskin dan rendah hasil pertanian daerah dekat Wonogiri. Selama dua tahun berikutnya, ia dibawa kembali ke ibunya di Kemusuk oleh ayah tirinya dan kemudian kembali lagi ke Wurjantoro oleh ayahnya.

Prawirowiharjo mengambil untuk membesarkan anak laki-laki sebagai miliknya, yang menyediakan Suharto ayah-angka dan rumah yang stabil di Wuryantoro, dari mana ia menerima banyak pendidikan utamanya. Suharto naik dengan dukun (“guru”) seni mistik Jawa dan penyembuhan iman. Pengalaman itu sangat mempengaruhinya dan kemudian, sebagai presiden, Soeharto dikelilingi dirinya dengan bahasa simbolik yang kuat. Selama waktu ini, daerah Wonogiri adalah salah satu yang terburuk di Jawa yang terkena dampak dari runtuhnya pendapatan ekspor Hindia Belanda ‘selama Great Depression. Sebagai pekerja menganggur kembali dari kota ke desa-desa mereka, perekonomian subsistensi tumbuh dan tak bertanah berjuang untuk membeli makanan.

Tidak adanya dokumentasi resmi dan aspek-aspek tertentu kehidupan awal Soeharto yang tidak konsisten dengan seorang petani Jawa (Suharto diterima, misalnya, pendidikan cukup awal), telah menyebabkan desas-desus beberapa Suharto menjadi anak haram sumur- off dermawan, yang termasuk sebagai anak seorang bangsawan Yogyakarta atau pedagang Indonesia yang baik-off Cina. Suharto biografi Robert E. Elson berpendapat bahwa rumor tersebut tidak dapat sepenuhnya dikesampingkan, mengingat bahwa banyak informasi Suharto telah diberikan pada asal-usulnya telah diwarnai dengan makna politik.

Seperti banyak orang Jawa, Suharto hanya satu nama. Dalam konteks agama, ia kadang-kadang disebut “Haji” atau “el-Haj Mohammed Suharto”, tapi itu bukan bagian dari nama resmi nya atau umum digunakan. ejaan yang “Suharto” mencerminkan ejaan Indonesia modern. Pada saat kelahirannya, transkripsi standar adalah “Soeharto” dan dia lebih menyukai ejaan asli. Pers berbahasa Inggris umumnya menggunakan ejaan ‘Suharto’, sedangkan pemerintah Indonesia dan menggunakan media ‘Soeharto’.

Soeharto dibesarkan kontras dengan nasionalis Indonesia terkemuka seperti Sukarno di bahwa ia diyakini telah memiliki bunga kecil di anti-kolonialisme, atau masalah politik di luar lingkungan langsungnya. Tidak seperti Sukarno dan lingkaran itu, Suharto tidak belajar bicara bahasa Belanda atau Eropa lainnya di masa mudanya. Dia belajar berbahasa Belanda setelah induksi ke dalam militer Belanda pada tahun 1940.
[Sunting Karir Militer]
[Sunting] Perang Dunia II dan pendudukan Jepang
Lihat juga: pendudukan Jepang di Indonesia

Setelah menyelesaikan sekolah menengah pada usia 18 tahun, Soeharto mengambil pekerjaan administrasi di sebuah bank di Wurjantaro namun terpaksa mengundurkan diri setelah kecelakaan sepeda merobek pakaiannya hanya kerjanya. Setelah mantra pengangguran, ia bergabung dengan Royal Tentara Hindia Belanda (KNIL) pada tahun 1940, dan belajar di sekolah militer Belanda yang dijalankan di Gombong dekat Yogyakarta. Dengan Belanda di bawah pendudukan Jerman dan Jepang untuk menekan akses ke pasokan minyak Indonesia, Belanda telah membuka KNIL ke intake besar sebelumnya dikecualikan Jawa. Setelah lulus, Soeharto ditugaskan ke Batalyon XIII di Rampal. pelayanan-Nya ada biasa-biasa saja, meskipun ia dikontrak malaria yang harus dirawat inap saat tugas jaga, dan kemudian mendapatkan promosi untuk sersan.

Para Maret 1942 Invasi pasukan Kekaisaran Jepang pada awalnya disambut oleh banyak orang Indonesia sebagai langkah penting menuju kemerdekaan dan Soeharto adalah salah satu dari ribuan warga Indonesia yang mengajukan diri untuk Jepang pasukan keamanan terorganisir. Dia pertama kali bergabung dengan kepolisian disponsori Jepang di peringkat keibuho (asisten inspektur), di mana ia mengaku telah memperoleh pengalaman pertamanya dalam pekerjaan intelijen begitu sentral bagi Kutipan [nya presiden diperlukan] (“Kriminal masalah menjadi masalah sekunder,” Suharto berkomentar, “apa yang paling penting adalah hal-hal dari jenis yang politik”).

Suharto bergeser dari pekerjaan polisi terhadap milisi yang disponsori Jepang, di Peta (Pembela Tanah Air) di mana Indonesia menjadi perwira. Dalam pelatihan untuk melayani di peringkat Shodanco (komandan peleton) dia menemukan sebuah versi lokal dari bushido Jepang, atau “jalan para” prajurit, digunakan untuk mengindoktrinasi tentara. Pelatihan ini mendorong anti-Belanda dan berpikir pro-nasionalis, meskipun terhadap tujuan dari militeris Kekaisaran Jepang. Pertemuan dengan ideologi nasionalis dan militeristik diyakini telah sangat mempengaruhi cara Suharto sendiri berpikir. Jepang berbalik mantan NCO, termasuk Soeharto, menjadi perwira dan memberi mereka melanjutkan pendidikan militer, termasuk pelajaran dalam penggunaan pedang samurai. Penulis biografi Soeharto, O.G. Roeder, catatan dalam The Smiling General (1969) bahwa Suharto adalah “terkenal karena sulit, tapi tidak brutal, metode”.
[Sunting] Revolusi Nasional Indonesia
Lihat juga: Revolusi Nasional Indonesia

Dua hari setelah menyerahnya Jepang di Pasifik, pemimpin kemerdekaan Soekarno dan Hatta mendeklarasikan kemerdekaan Indonesia, dan ditunjuk sebagai Presiden dan Wakil Presiden masing-masing dari Republik baru. Suharto resimennya dibubarkan sesuai dengan perintah dari perintah Jepang dan kembali ke Yogyakarta. Sebagai kelompok republik bangkit untuk menyatakan kemerdekaan Indonesia, Soeharto bergabung dengan unit baru dari tentara Indonesia yang baru dibentuk. Berdasarkan pengalaman PETA, ia diangkat wakil komandan, dan kemudian seorang komandan batalion ketika pasukan Republik secara resmi diselenggarakan pada bulan Oktober 1945. Soeharto terlibat dalam pertempuran melawan pasukan Sekutu di sekitar Magelang dan Semarang, dan kemudian ditunjuk sebagai kepala sebuah brigade sebagai letnan kolonel, memiliki dihormati sebagai komandan lapangan. Pada tahun-tahun awal Perang, ia mengatur angkatan bersenjata lokal ke Batalyon X Resimen I; Suharto naik pangkat Mayor dan menjadi pemimpin Batalyon X.

Kedatangan Sekutu, di bawah mandat untuk kembali ke situasi status quo ante bellum, cepat menyebabkan bentrokan antara republik Indonesia dan pasukan Sekutu, yaitu kembali membantu pasukan Belanda dan Inggris. Suharto memimpin Divisi X nya pasukan untuk menghentikan uang muka oleh T Belanda (“Tiger”) Brigade pada tanggal 17 Mei 1946. Hal ini membuatnya mendapatkan rasa hormat dari atasannya, Letnan Kolonel Sunarto Kusumodirjo, yang mengundangnya untuk draft pedoman bekerja untuk Pertempuran Markas Kepemimpinan (MPP), sebuah lembaga yang diciptakan untuk mengatur dan menyatukan struktur komando pasukan Nasionalis Indonesia. Kekuatan militer Republik bayi di Indonesia masih terus-menerus restrukturisasi. Pada bulan Agustus 1946, Soeharto adalah kepala dari Resimen 22 Divisi III (“Diponegoro Divisi”) ditempatkan di Yogyakarta. Pada akhir 1946, Divisi Diponegoro menerima tanggung jawab untuk pertahanan di barat dan barat daya Yogyakarta dari pasukan Belanda. Kondisi saat itu dilaporkan dalam sumber-sumber Belanda sebagai sengsara; Soeharto sendiri dilaporkan sebagai membantu sindikat penyelundupan dalam transportasi opium melalui wilayah yang dikontrol, untuk membuat penghasilan.
Letnan Kolonel Suharto pada tahun 1947.

Pada bulan Desember 1948, meluncurkan Belanda “Operasi Gagak”, yang hancur sebagian besar pasukan melawan Indonesia, dan menyebabkan penangkapan Sukarno dan Hatta.For bagiannya, Soeharto mengambil korban parah dengan kekalahan yang menghinakan bagi pasukan Republik sebagai menginvasi Belanda daerah Yogyakarta. Dalam serangan fajar pada tanggal 1 Maret 1949, pasukan Suharto dan lokal milisi menangkap kembali kota itu, memegangnya sampai siang. rekening kemudian Soeharto telah dia sebagai plotter sendirian, meskipun sumber-sumber lain mengatakan Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX dari Yogyakarta, dan Panglima Divisi Ketiga memerintahkan serangan itu. Namun, Jenderal Nasution mengatakan bahwa Suharto mengambil perhatian besar dalam penyusunan “Serangan Umum” (Indonesia Serangan Umum). Sipil bersimpati terhadap perjuangan Republik dalam kota telah galvanis oleh unjuk kekuatan yang membuktikan bahwa Belanda telah gagal untuk memenangkan perang gerilya. Internasional, Dewan Keamanan PBB menekan Belanda untuk menghentikan serangan militer dan perundingan dimulai kembali. Soeharto dilaporkan mengambil minat aktif dalam perjanjian damai, tetapi akan banyak orang militer Republik, mereka banyak ketidakpuasannya.

Selama Revolusi, Soeharto menikah dengan Siti Hartinah (dikenal sebagai Madam Tien), putri seorang bangsawan kecil di rumah kerajaan Mangkunegaran Solo. Pernikahan diatur adalah abadi dan mendukung, yang berlangsung sampai kematian Tien di tahun 1996. Pasangan ini memiliki enam orang anak: Siti Hardiyanti Rukmana (Tutut, lahir 1949), Sigit Harjojudanto (lahir 1951), Bambang Trihatmodjo (lahir 1953), Siti Hediati (Titiek, lahir 1959), Hutomo Mandala Putra (Tommy, lahir 1962), dan Siti Hutami Endang Adiningsih (Mamiek, lahir 1964). Dalam kelas atas Jawa, dianggap diterima jika istri yang dikejar commerce sopan untuk menambah anggaran keluarga, sehingga suaminya untuk menjaga martabatnya dalam peran resminya. Urusan komersial Tien, anak-anaknya dan cucu-cucu menjadi luas dan akhirnya menggerogoti presiden Soeharto.
[Sunting] Pasca-Kemerdekaan karir militer
Suharto bersama istri dan enam anak-anak pada tahun 1967.

Pada tahun-tahun setelah kemerdekaan Indonesia, Soeharto bertugas di Tentara Nasional Indonesia, terutama di Jawa. Pada tahun 1950, Kolonel Soeharto memimpin Brigade Garuda dalam menekan pemberontakan yang sebagian besar pendukung kolonial yang terlatih Ambon dari Negara Belanda yang didirikan Timur Indonesia dan badan federal Amerika Serikat di Indonesia. Selama tahun di Makassar, Suharto berkenalan dengan tetangga keluarga Habibie, yang putra sulung BJ Habibie kemudian akan menjadi wakil presiden Soeharto dan pergi untuk menggantikannya sebagai Presiden. Pada tahun 1951, Suharto memimpin pasukannya dalam kampanye pemblokiran terhadap pemberontakan Islam yang diilhami dari Batalyon 426 di Jawa Tengah sebelum rusak oleh ‘Banteng (Wild Buffalo) Raiders’ dipimpin oleh Ahmad Yani.

Antara 1954 dan 1959, Brigadir Jenderal Suharto menjabat dalam posisi penting dari Komandan Divisi Diponegoro, bertanggung jawab untuk Jawa Tengah dan Yogyakarta. Hubungannya dengan pengusaha terkemuka Liem Sioe Liong dan Bob Hasan, yang memperpanjang sepanjang kepresidenannya, mulai di Jawa Tengah dimana dia terlibat dalam serangkaian “menghasilkan keuntungan” usaha dilakukan terutama untuk menjaga fungsi unit buruk didanai militer. Angkatan Darat penyelidikan anti-korupsi Soeharto terlibat dalam skandal penyelundupan 1959. Dibebaskan dari posisinya, ia dipindahkan ke tentara Sekolah Staf dan Komando (SESKOAD) di kota Bandung. Sementara di Bandung, ia dipromosikan menjadi brigadir jenderal, dan pada tahun 1960 akhir, dipromosikan menjadi kepala intelijen militer. Pada 1961, ia diberi perintah tambahan, sebagai kepala baru pasukan Cadangan Strategis (Kostrad kemudian), sebuah angkatan udara-mobile siap-reaksi.

Pada bulan Januari 1962, Soeharto dipromosikan menjadi pangkat Jenderal besar dan ditunjuk untuk memimpin Operasi Mandala, perintah tentara angkatan laut-bersama angkatan udara. Ini membentuk sisi militer dari kampanye untuk memenangkan barat New Guinea, dari Belanda yang sedang mempersiapkan untuk kemerdekaan sendiri, terpisah dari Indonesia. Pada tahun 1965, Soeharto ditugaskan perintah operasional konfrontasi Sukarno, terhadap Malaysia yang baru terbentuk. Takut bahwa konfrontasi akan meninggalkan Jawa iris ditutupi oleh tentara, dan kontrol tangan ke 2-juta kuat Partai Komunis Indonesia (PKI), ia resmi seorang perwira intelijen Kostrad Ali Murtopo, untuk membuka kontak dengan Inggris dan Malaysia.
[Sunting] Gulingkan Sukarno (1965)
Artikel utama: Transisi ke Orde Baru
[Sunting] Latar Belakang
Lihat juga: Demokrasi Terpimpin di Indonesia

Dari akhir 1950-an, konflik politik tumbuh dan ekonomi memburuk. Pada pertengahan 1960-an, inflasi tahunan berlari antara 500-1000%, pendapatan ekspor menyusut, infrastruktur hancur, dan kemiskinan yang parah dan kelaparan yang meluas. Presiden Sukarno memimpin negaranya dalam konfrontasi militer dengan Malaysia sementara meningkatkan retorika revolusioner dan anti-barat. posisi Sukarno datang bergantung pada keseimbangan kekuatan semakin memusuhi tentara dan Partai Komunis Indonesia (PKI). Pada tahun 1965 pada puncak Perang Dingin, PKI menembus semua tingkat pemerintahan. Dengan dukungan Sukarno, partai mendapatkan pengaruh peningkatan dengan mengorbankan tentara, sehingga memastikan permusuhan tentara. Pada akhir tahun 1965, tentara dibagi antara faksi sayap kiri bersekutu dengan PKI, dan sebuah faksi sayap kanan yang sedang dirayu oleh Amerika Serikat.
[Sunting kudeta gagal] dan anti-komunis purge
Artikel utama: Gerakan 30 September dan pembunuhan, Indonesia 1965-1966
Seperti Mayor Jenderal, Soeharto (di kanan, depan) menghadiri pemakaman bagi jenderal dibunuh 5 Oktober 1965.

Pada malam 30 September 1965 enam jenderal senior diculik dan dieksekusi di Jakarta oleh batalion tentara dari Pengawal Presiden. Didukung oleh unsur-unsur dari angkatan bersenjata, para pemberontak yang diduduki Merdeka Square termasuk area di depan Istana Kepresidenan, stasiun radio nasional, dan pusat telekomunikasi. Pada 7:10 Letnan Kolonel Untung Syamsuri mengumumkan di radio bahwa “Gerakan 30 September” telah forestalled kudeta oleh “jenderal power-gila”, dan bahwa itu adalah “urusan internal tentara”. Selain dari Angkatan Bersenjata Kepala Staf, Jenderal Abdul Haris Nasution-yang ditargetkan tapi lolos pembunuhan oleh memanjat dinding taman ketika tentara datang untuk menangkapnya-Soeharto adalah jenderal yang paling senior tidak dihapus oleh kelompok 30 September. Soeharto telah berada di rumah sakit malam itu dengan tiga tahun anaknya Tommy tua yang mengalami luka panas. Di sinilah ia berbicara dengan Kolonel Abdul Latief, satu-satunya orang kunci dalam peristiwa berikutnya dengan siapa ia berbicara malam itu.

Setelah diberi tahu tentang penembakan dan penculikan, Soeharto pergi ke markas Kostrad sebelum fajar dari mana ia bisa melihat tentara menduduki Merdeka Square. Dia memimpin Kostrad dalam merebut kendali pusat Jakarta, menangkap situs strategis. Suharto mengumumkan melalui radio at 9:00 bahwa enam jendral telah diculik oleh “kontra-revolusioner”. Dia mengatakan dia mengendalikan tentara, dan bahwa ia akan menghancurkan Gerakan 30 September dan menjaga Sukarno. Soeharto mengeluarkan ultimatum kepada Halim Air Force Base, di mana G30S telah mendasarkan diri mereka dan di mana Sukarno (alasan untuk kehadirannya tidak jelas dan menjadi subyek dari klaim dan kontra-klaim), Jenderal Omar Dhani dan Aidit telah berkumpul. Para pemimpin kudeta lari dari Jakarta sementara batalyon G30S-simpatik di Jawa Tengah cepat datang bawah kendali Suharto.

Yang kurang terorganisir dan terkoordinasi dengan demikian kudeta gagal, dan dengan 2 Oktober, kubu Soeharto adalah tegas dalam mengendalikan tentara. ketaatan Sukarno 1 ultimatum Oktober Suharto meninggalkan Halim mengubah semua hubungan kekuasaan. Sukarno rapuh keseimbangan kekuasaan antara, militer Islam politik, komunis, dan nasionalis yang mendasari “nya Demokrasi Terpimpin” itu runtuh. teori-teori yang rumit dan partisan terus hari ini atas identitas penyelenggara usaha kudeta dan tujuan mereka. Tentara (dan kemudian “Orde Baru itu”) versi resmi bahwa PKI bertanggung jawab. teori lainnya termasuk Soeharto berada di belakang peristiwa, bahwa tentara dan Suharto hanya mengambil keuntungan dari kudeta buruk dijalankan, dan bahwa Sukarno berada di belakang peristiwa (lihat Gerakan 30 September).

Sebuah kampanye propaganda militer yakin Indonesia maupun khalayak internasional bahwa itu adalah kudeta Komunis, dan bahwa pembunuhan itu kekejaman pengecut melawan pahlawan Indonesia. Tentara memimpin kampanye untuk membersihkan masyarakat Indonesia, pemerintah dan angkatan bersenjata dari partai komunis dan organisasi kiri. membersihkan dengan cepat menyebar dari Jakarta ke seluruh negara. (Lihat: pembunuhan, Indonesia 1965-1966) Di beberapa daerah tentara yang diselenggarakan kelompok sipil dan keagamaan dan milisi lokal, di daerah lain mendahului tindakan main hakim sendiri komunal tentara. Perkiraan paling banyak diterima adalah bahwa setidaknya setengah juta tewas. Sebanyak 1,5 juta telah dipenjarakan di satu tahap atau lainnya. Sebagai hasil dari pemurnian itu, salah satu dari tiga pilar Sukarno dukungan, Partai Komunis Indonesia, secara efektif dieliminasi oleh dua lainnya, Islam militer dan politik.
[Sunting] perjuangan Power
Lihat juga: Supersemar

Pada tanggal 2 Oktober, menerima pesanan Suharto Sukarno untuk mengambil alih kendali tentara pada kondisi Soeharto bahwa ia pribadi memiliki kewenangan untuk memulihkan ketertiban dan keamanan. Pembentukan 1 November dari Kopkamtib (Komando Operasi Pemulihan Keamanan Dan Ketertiban, atau Komando Operasi Pemulihan Keamanan dan Ketertiban), resmi otoritas ini. Pada bulan Januari 1966, PKI, Presiden Soekarno pilar terkuat dari dukungan, telah efektif dieliminasi, tentara sekarang melihat kesempatan untuk menduduki puncak kekuasaan Indonesia. Soekarno masih menjadi Panglima Tertinggi berdasarkan konstitusi, sehingga Suharto berhati-hati untuk tidak terlihat merebut kekuasaan dalam kudeta sendiri. Selama delapan belas bulan setelah quashing dari Gerakan 30 September, ada proses yang rumit manoeuvers politik terhadap Sukarno, termasuk agitasi mahasiswa, penyusunan parlemen, media propaganda dan ancaman militer.

Pada tanggal 1 Februari 1966, Sukarno Suharto dipromosikan ke pangkat Letnan Jenderal. Bulan yang sama, Jenderal Nasution telah dipaksa keluar dari posisi Menteri Pertahanan, dan kontes listrik telah dikurangi dengan Suharto dan Sukarno. Keputusan Supersemar dari 11 Maret 1966 dialihkan sebagian besar kekuasaan Sukarno atas parlemen dan tentara untuk Soeharto, seolah-olah memungkinkan Soeharto untuk melakukan apapun yang diperlukan untuk memulihkan ketertiban. Pada tanggal 12 Maret 1967, Sukarno dilucuti kekuasaannya oleh Indonesia yang tersisa Parlemen sementara, dan Soeharto bernama Pejabat Presiden. Sukarno dikenakan tahanan rumah, sedikit lebih terdengar dari dia, dan dia meninggal pada bulan Juni 1970. Pada tanggal 27 Maret 1968, Majelis Perwakilan Rakyat Sementara secara resmi terpilih Soeharto untuk pertama istilah nya lima tahun sebagai Presiden.
[Sunting] “Orde Baru” (1967-1998)
Lihat juga: Orde Baru (Indonesia)
[Sunting] Institutionalisation Orde Baru
Lihat juga: Penjabat Presiden Soeharto
Soeharto diangkat Presiden Indonesia pada upacara, Maret 1968.

Pada awalnya, banyak melihat Suharto sebagai perwira relatif jelas yang telah dorong menjadi terkenal kejadian akhir tahun 1965 dan diasumsikan ia tidak akan tetap berfungsi lama. Namun, keterampilan hebat politiknya cepat menjadi jelas. Berbeda dengan konflik komunal dan politik, kehancuran ekonomi dan kerusakan sosial-1950-an dan pertengahan 1960-an, Suharto “Orde Baru”-jadi-disebut untuk membedakannya dari “orde lama Sukarno”-adalah berkomitmen untuk mencapai tatanan politik, ekonomi pembangunan, dan penghapusan partisipasi massa dalam proses politik. Di tempat retorika revolusioner Soekarno, Soeharto menunjukkan penggunaan pragmatis kekuasaan, dan berbeda dengan demokrasi parlementer liberal tahun 1950-an, Suharto memimpin pemerintahan, otoriter yang didominasi militer. The “Orde Baru” menampilkan masyarakat sipil lemah, birokratisasi dan corporatisation organisasi politik dan sosial, dan selektif namun represi efektif lawan.

Untuk menjaga ketertiban dalam negeri, Soeharto sangat memperluas dana dan kekuasaan aparatur negara Indonesia. Dia mendirikan dua badan intelijen Komando Operasi Pemulihan Keamanan dan Ketertiban (Kopkamtib) dan Badan Koordinasi Intelijen Negara (BAKIN)-untuk menangani ancaman terhadap rezim. Biro Logistik (BULOG) didirikan untuk mendistribusikan beras dan bahan pokok lainnya yang diberikan oleh USAID. Ini pemerintah baru mayat-mayat itu diletakkan di bawah struktur komando militer daerah, bahwa di bawah Suharto diberi fungsi “ganda” baik sebagai kekuatan pertahanan dan sebagai administrator sipil. Orde Baru bergulir partai-partai politik Indonesia menjadi dua – dan pihak Kristen nasionalis menjadi Partai Demokrasi Indonesia (PDI), dan partai-partai Islam ke dalam Partai Rakyat Pembangunan (PPP). Orde Baru membangun gerakan koperasi yang disponsori tentara, Golkar, sebuah koalisi dari “masyarakat kelompok fungsional”, menjadi pihak resmi pembangunan sekuler. Golkar, PDI, dan PPP adalah partai hanya diperbolehkan untuk bersaing dengan dua pemilu terakhir dicegah dari membentuk oposisi yang efektif. 100 kursi di perguruan tinggi pemilu untuk pemilihan Presiden yang disisihkan untuk wakil-wakil militer. Soeharto terpilih sebagai presiden terlindung pada tahun 1973,, 1978 1983, 1988, 1993, dan 1998.

Sebagai bagian dari 1967s ‘Dasar Kebijakan Solusi Masalah Cina’ dan lainnya, semua kecuali satu koran berbahasa Cina ditutup, semua ekspresi keagamaan Cina harus dibatasi ke rumah mereka, sekolah berbahasa Cina dihilangkah, Cina script di tempat umum dilarang, dan Cina didorong untuk mengambil nama-nama Indonesia yang terdengar. Sebagian besar undang-undang ini dicabut setelah jatuhnya Suharto dari kekuasaan tahun 1998.
[Sunting] Ekonomi

Dari tahun 1965 sampai 68, hyper-inflasi dikendalikan. Berbagai upaya dilaksanakan untuk mendorong investasi asing di Indonesia sekali lagi. Ini termasuk privatisasi sumber daya alam untuk mempromosikan investasi oleh negara-negara industri, undang-undang tenaga kerja baik untuk perusahaan-perusahaan multinasional, dan meminta dana untuk pembangunan dari lembaga-lembaga termasuk Bank Dunia, bank-bank Barat, dan pemerintah ramah. Soeharto membawa perubahan kebijakan dari Sukarno dan membiarkan USAID dan lembaga bantuan lain untuk melanjutkan operasi di dalam negeri. Dia membuka ekonomi Indonesia melalui divestasi perusahaan milik negara, dan negara-negara Barat khususnya didorong untuk berinvestasi dan mengambil kendali dari banyak pertambangan dan konstruksi kepentingan di sana.
Soeharto dalam kunjungan ke Jerman Barat pada tahun 1970.

Dalam beberapa tahun, perekonomian Indonesia telah kembali dari negaranya roboh dekat pertengahan 1960-an. Mencatat pertumbuhan ekonomi yang kuat tahunan selama tiga dekade presiden Soeharto, walaupun banyak dari keuntungan ini akan hilang dalam krisis keuangan Asia 1997-1998. Indonesia mencapai swasembada dalam produksi beras oleh-, pertengahan 1980-an pendidikan dasar untuk hampir semua warga negara, dan program keluarga berencana yang sukses. Subsidi pada dasar-dasar seperti makanan dan bahan bakar untuk mempertahankan dukungan akar rumput yang mahal untuk anggaran pemerintah.

Walaupun rezim Suharto mengklaim telah berhasil mengurangi kemiskinan, empat dari lima penduduk Indonesia masih hidup di bawah atau hanya sedikit di atas level $ 1 hari menjelang akhir pemerintahannya. mantan menteri Suharto datar menyatakan pemerintah menurunkan angka kemiskinan yang diduga adalah palsu. Definisi rezim Suharto kemiskinan juga meningkat: itu adalah jumlah moneter, basis rupiah cukup untuk memungkinkan masyarakat miskin untuk mendapatkan norma yang diterima secara internasional 2.100 kalori per hari. Jumlah uang tunai telah kurang dari garis kemiskinan yang diterima secara global sebesar $ 1 per hari. Sampai krisis 1998, hanya sekitar setengah itu di kota-kota di Indonesia, dan kurang di pedesaan.

Pengaruh dan peluang bisnis menjadi semakin terkonsentrasi dalam keluarga Soeharto, kerabat, disukai jenderal dan sejumlah pengusaha etnis Cina bahwa ia telah dikenal sejak waktunya di Semarang pada khususnya Liem Siu Liong dan Bob Hasan. Sebagian besar dana mengalir ke yayasan (yayasan) yang dikendalikan oleh keluarga Soeharto. Pada era 80-an akhir, tingkat kegiatan usaha keluarga pertama bahkan khawatir rekan militer lama, seperti Jendral Benny Murdani. Oleh puncak sebelum krisis keuangan pertengahan 1990-an, pendapatan tahunan keluarga diperkirakan dalam miliaran dolar AS. Sebagian besar itu daur ulang kembali ke bayar off, patronase, subsidi militer, dan dana kampanye.
[Sunting] Kebijakan luar negeri, Irian Jaya, Timor Timur dan Aceh
Suharto 1970 menghadiri pertemuan Gerakan Non-Blok di Lusaka.

Setelah kekuasaan dengan asumsi, Soeharto mengirimkan menteri luar negeri Adam Malik untuk memperbaiki hubungan tegang dengan Amerika Serikat, PBB, dan mengakhiri Sukarno-menghasut konfrontasi dengan Malaysia. Sebelumnya semakin dekat hubungan dengan Cina dipotong (hubungan diplomatik dikembalikan pada tahun 1990). Soeharto memainkan peran penting dalam pembentukan Perhimpunan Bangsa Asia Tenggara (ASEAN) pada tahun 1967 dan Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) di awal 1990-an. Secara resmi, “Orde Baru” diikuti kebijakan luar negeri yang netral.

Pada tahun 1969, pemerintah Soeharto mencapai kesepakatan dengan Amerika Serikat dan Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa, untuk menyelenggarakan referendum untuk menentukan nasib sendiri barat New Guinea. Tahun 1969 “Act of Free Choice” terbuka untuk 1022 “kepala” dan keputusan dengan suara bulat untuk integrasi dengan memimpin Indonesia untuk meragukan validitasnya. Pada tahun 1975, Indonesia menginvasi Timor Portugis dan tahun berikutnya menyatakan Timor Timur 27 provinsi Indonesia, suatu status yang tidak pernah diakui oleh PBB. Setelah pengunduran diri Soeharto 1998 dari Kepresidenan, pemerintah Indonesia menyerahkan kontrol Timor Timur pada tahun 1999 menyusul suara referendum untuk kemerdekaan. Sebuah minimum estimasi 102.800 kematian yang berkaitan dengan konflik terjadi di Timor Timur selama periode 1974-1999, yaitu sekitar 18.600 pembunuhan dan kelebihan ‘84.200’ kematian akibat kelaparan dan penyakit. Pada tahun 1976, Gerakan Aceh Merdeka, atau GAM, yang menuntut kemerdekaan untuk Aceh dari Indonesia. Soeharto resmi pasukan untuk menumpas pemberontakan itu, memaksa beberapa pemimpinnya ke pengasingan di Swedia. Pertempuran berkepanjangan antara GAM dan militer Indonesia dan polisi yang dipimpin Suharto menyatakan hukum darurat militer di provinsi tersebut, dengan menyebutkan Aceh daerah “operasi militer” pada tahun 1990. [Rujukan?]
[Sunting] Politik dan perbedaan pendapat
Soeharto dengan Menteri Pertahanan AS William Cohen, 14 Januari 1998.

Pada tahun 1970, korupsi menimbulkan protes mahasiswa dan investigasi oleh sebuah komisi pemerintah. Soeharto menjawab dengan melarang protes mahasiswa, memaksa para aktivis bawah tanah. Hanya tanda penuntutan kasus-kasus yang direkomendasikan oleh komisi itu dikejar. Pada tanggal 5 Mei tahun 1980, sebuah sekelompok orang militer terkemuka, politisi, akademisi, dan mahasiswa yang menyebut diri mereka Petisi “dari Lima puluh” mempertanyakan penggunaan Suharto ideologi nasional Pancasila. Media Indonesia menekan beritanya dan pemerintah menempatkan pembatasan pada penandatangan. Setelah 1984 tuduhan kelompok itu bahwa Suharto adalah menciptakan negara satu partai, beberapa pemimpinnya dipenjarakan. [Rujukan?] Pada dekade yang sama, diyakini oleh banyak sarjana bahwa perpecahan militer Indonesia antara nasionalis “faksi merah dan putih “dan Islam faksi” hijau. ” Seperti tahun 1980-an ditutup, Soeharto dikatakan telah dipaksa untuk mengubah aliansi dari yang pertama untuk yang kedua, yang menyebabkan munculnya Jusuf Habibie pada 1990-an.

Menyusul akhir Perang Dingin, perhatian Barat atas komunisme memudar, dan catatan hak asasi manusia Soeharto berada di bawah pengawasan internasional yang lebih besar. Pembunuhan tahun 1991 lebih dari 200 warga sipil Timor Timur di Dili, Timor Timur, menyebabkan Kongres Amerika Serikat melewati batasan pada bantuan IMET untuk military.Noam dengan Chomsky Indonesia menyebut invasi 1975 Indonesia dan pendudukan Timor Timur sebagai yang terburuk contoh genosida relatif terhadap populasi sejak Holocaust. Pada tahun 1993, di bawah Presiden Bill Clinton, delegasi AS untuk PBB Komisi Hak Asasi Manusia membantu melewati sebuah resolusi yang menyatakan keprihatinan yang mendalam atas pelanggaran hak asasi manusia Indonesia di Timor Timur.

Meskipun keprihatinan atas hak asasi manusia Indonesia, pemerintahan Clinton dipandang sebagai mendukung Suharto-Indonesia terlihat untuk melayani kepentingan AS. Soeharto perekonomian Indonesia diregulasi dan membuka Indonesia untuk investor asing.

Pada tahun 1996, Megawati Soekarnoputri, putri Sukarno, dan ketua Partai Demokrasi Indonesia semakin kritis dari “Orde Baru Suharto”. Sebagai tanggapan, Soeharto mendukung sebuah faksi terkooptasi dipimpin oleh Wakil Ketua Parlemen Suryadi, yang dihapus Megawati dari kursi. Sebuah tindakan keras pemerintah pada pendukung Megawati menunjukkan mengakibatkan sejumlah kematian, kerusuhan dan penangkapan dua ratus. Mereka ditangkap diadili di anti-Subversion dan hukum penyebaran kebencian. Ini menandai awal penindasan baru oleh pemerintah Orde Baru terhadap pendukung demokrasi, sekarang disebut “Reformasi” atau Reformasi.
[Sunting] Pengunduran Diri
Artikel utama: Kejatuhan Soeharto
Suharto membaca alamat pengunduran diri di Istana Merdeka pada tanggal 21 Mei 1998. penerus Soeharto, BJ Habibie, adalah di sebelah kanannya.
Wikisource memiliki teks asli yang berkaitan dengan artikel ini:
Soeharto Pidato Pengunduran Diri

Krisis finansial Asia telah berdampak mengerikan bagi perekonomian Indonesia dan masyarakat, dan rezim Soeharto. Mata uang Indonesia runtuh nilai, investasi asing kering, dan PHK massal pekerja perkotaan dan harga naik menciptakan ketegangan di seluruh negeri. Soeharto terpilih kembali untuk satu periode lima tahun di Maret 1998, susun parlemen dan kabinet dengan keluarganya sendiri dan rekan bisnis dalam proses. Semakin, tokoh politik terkemuka berbicara keluar terhadap presiden Soeharto, dan mahasiswa yang diselenggarakan demonstrasi nasional.

Penembakan empat demonstran mahasiswa di Jakarta Mei 1998 memicu kerusuhan di seluruh kota yang menghancurkan ribuan bangunan dan menewaskan lebih dari 1.000 orang. Setelah kemarahan publik pada peristiwa, pekerjaan mahasiswa dari gedung parlemen, protes jalanan di seluruh negeri, dan desersi dari sekutu politik penting, pada 21 Mei 1998 Soeharto mengumumkan pengunduran dirinya dari kursi kepresidenan. Baru-baru ini diangkat Wakil Presiden Habibie diasumsikan presiden sesuai dengan konstitusi.
[Sunting] Pasca-kepresidenan

Setelah pengunduran dirinya, Soeharto mengundurkan diri ke senyawa keluarga di Jakarta Pusat, membuat beberapa penampilan publik. Upaya untuk mengadili Soeharto telah sebagian besar diduga berpusat di sekitar kesalahan manajemen dana, dan memaksa mereka telah tumpul karena masalah kesehatan. Suharto tidak pernah dituntut.
[Sunting Investigasi] kekayaan

Pada bulan Mei 1999, Time Asia estimasi kekayaan keluarga Soeharto di US $ 15 miliar dalam bentuk tunai, saham, aset perusahaan, real estate, perhiasan dan seni rupa. Dari jumlah ini, US $ 9 miliar dilaporkan telah didepositkan di bank Austria. Keluarga dikatakan untuk mengendalikan sekitar 36.000 km ² real estate di Indonesia, termasuk 100.000 m² ruang kantor utama di Jakarta dan hampir 40% dari tanah di Timor Timur. Soeharto ditempatkan tertinggi dalam daftar Transparency International pemimpin korup dengan dugaan penyalahgunaan antara US $ 15-35000000000 selama kepresidenannya 32-tahun.

Pada tanggal 29 Mei 2000, Soeharto dikenakan tahanan rumah ketika pemerintah Indonesia mulai menyelidiki korupsi selama rezimnya. Pada bulan Juli 2000, ia mengumumkan bahwa ia akan dituduh menggelapkan US $ 571.000.000 dari sumbangan pemerintah untuk salah satu dari sejumlah yayasan di bawah kendali dan kemudian menggunakan uang itu untuk membiayai investasi keluarga. Tapi di dokter yang ditunjuk pengadilan September mengumumkan bahwa ia tidak bisa diadili karena kesehatannya menurun. Negara jaksa mencoba lagi di tahun 2002 tapi kemudian dokter yang dikutip penyakit otak yang tidak ditentukan. Pada tanggal 26 Maret 2008, seorang hakim pengadilan sipil dibebaskan Soeharto korupsi namun memerintahkan yayasan amal nya, Supersemar, untuk membayar US $ 110 m (£ 55 m).
[Sunting] Terkait kasus hukum

Pada tahun 2002, putra Soeharto Hutomo Mandala Putra, lebih dikenal dengan Tommy, dijatuhi hukuman 15 tahun penjara. Dia telah dihukum karena memerintahkan pembunuhan seorang hakim yang memvonisnya 18 bulan penjara karena korupsi dan kepemilikan senjata ilegal. Pada tahun 2006, dia dibebaskan pada “pembebasan bersyarat.” berikut pengurangan hukuman.

Pada tahun 2003, setengah-saudara Soeharto Probosutedjo diadili dan dihukum untuk korupsi dan kerugian sebesar $ 10 juta dari negara Indonesia. Dia dihukum empat tahun penjara. Dia kemudian memenangkan pengurangan hukuman dua tahun, memulai penyelidikan oleh Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi Indonesia ke dalam skandal dugaan mafia “peradilan” yang mengungkap menawarkan sebesar $ 600.000 hingga berbagai hakim. Probosutedjo mengaku skema tersebut pada bulan Oktober 2005, yang mengarah ke penangkapan pengacaranya. lengkapnya jangka empat tahun itu kembali. Setelah kebuntuan singkat di rumah sakit, di mana ia dilaporkan dilindungi oleh sekelompok perwira polisi, ia ditangkap pada tanggal 30 November 2005.

Pada tanggal 9 Juli 2007, jaksa Indonesia mengajukan gugatan perdata terhadap mantan Presiden Soeharto, untuk memulihkan dana negara ($ 440 m atau £ 219 m, yang diduga menghilang dari dana beasiswa, dan $ lebih 1,1 milyar pada kerusakan).

Pada tanggal 4 September 2007, mediasi di Kejaksaan Agung (Kejagung) antara jaksa dan pengacara untuk Soeharto atas gugatan perdata Yayasan Supersemar berhasil dan dengan demikian persidangan harus dimulai.

Pada tanggal 10 September 2007, Mahkamah Agung Indonesia diberikan kerusakan Soeharto melawan majalah Time Asia, memerintahkan untuk membayar satu triliun rupiah ($ 128.590.000). Pengadilan Tinggi terbalik penghakiman pengadilan banding dan pengadilan distrik Jakarta Pusat (dibuat pada tahun 2000 dan 2001). Suharto telah menggugat majalah Time yang berbasis mencari lebih dari $ US 27 miliar pada ganti rugi atas fitnah atas artikel 1999 yang melaporkan bahwa ia mencuri uang ditransfer ke luar negeri.
[Sunting] Kesehatan krisis

Setelah mengundurkan diri dari presiden, Soeharto dirawat di rumah sakit berulang kali untuk stroke, jantung, dan masalah usus. Kesehatannya menurun berdampak negatif terhadap banyak usaha untuk mengadili Suharto atas tuduhan korupsi dan pelanggaran hak asasi manusia, sebagai pengacaranya berhasil mengklaim bahwa kondisinya tidak layak diberikan kepadanya untuk diadili. Pada tahun 2006, Jaksa Agung Abdurrahman mengumumkan bahwa tim dari dua puluh dokter akan diminta untuk mengevaluasi kesehatan dan kebugaran Soeharto untuk diadili. Satu dokter, Brigadir Jenderal Dr Marjo Subiandono, menyatakan keraguan tentang dengan mencatat bahwa “[Suharto] memiliki dua cacat otak permanen.” Dalam laporan Financial Times kemudian, Jaksa Agung Abdurrahman membahas pemeriksaan ulang, dan menyebutnya sebagai bagian dari “kesempatan terakhir” untuk mengadili kejahatan Soeharto. Jaksa Agung Abdurrahman dibiarkan terbuka kemungkinan mengajukan gugatan terhadap real Soeharto. ”
[Sunting] Kematian

Pada tanggal 4 Januari 2008, Soeharto dibawa ke rumah sakit Pertamina, Jakarta dengan komplikasi yang timbul dari hati yang lemah, pembengkakan kaki dan perut, dan gagal ginjal parsial. Kesehatannya berfluktuasi selama beberapa minggu tetapi semakin diperparah dengan anemia dan tekanan darah rendah karena komplikasi jantung dan ginjal, perdarahan internal, cairan di paru-parunya, dan darah pada tinja dan urin yang menyebabkan penurunan hemoglobin. Pada tanggal 23 Januari, kesehatan Soeharto memburuk lebih lanjut, sebagai infeksi sepsis menyebar ke seluruh tubuhnya. Keluarganya menyetujui penghapusan mesin mendukung kehidupan, dan dia meninggal pada tanggal 27 Januari at 1:10

tubuh Soeharto diambil dari Jakarta ke kompleks makam Giri Bangun dekat kota Solo Jawa Tengah. Ia dimakamkan di samping mendiang istrinya di pemakaman kenegaraan dengan kehormatan militer penuh, dengan pasukan elit Kopassus dan pasukan Kostrad sebagai penjaga kehormatan dan pengusung jenazah dan Panglima Grup II Kopassus Surakarta Lt.Colonel Asep Subarkah. Dalam pertemuan itu presiden incumbent, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono sebagai “” Inspektur Upacara, dan wakil-presiden, menteri pemerintah, dan pasukan bersenjata kepala staf. Puluhan ribu orang berbaris di jalan-jalan untuk melihat konvoi. Belasungkawa ditawarkan oleh kepala daerah banyak negara, meskipun para pemimpin daerah tertentu seperti Helen Clark, Perdana Menteri Selandia Baru, memboikot pemakaman, sedangkan di Indonesia Presiden Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono menyatakan satu minggu berkabung resmi.(ADM) Sumber: Wikipedia

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